Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology


  2. A. Course Title: Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology
    B. Course Number: INDT 213 - 30422
    C. Semester: Fall 2017
    D. Days/Time: Online
    E. Credit Hours: 3
    F. Instructor: Abitz, Michael
    G. Office: none
    H. Email Address:
    I. Office Phone: none
    J. Office Hours: 9 AM to 9 PM CDT/CST (Call me any day via cell phone number posted on your Home Page)
    K. Time Zone: Mountain Time
    L. Prerequisite(s):
    M. Corequisite(s):
    N. Class Location: Virtual

    This course introduces students to methods and processes used in various energy industries. Students are introduced to the use of vacuum technology in the production of microelectronics, optics, specialty pharmaceuticals, chemical analysis, and other areas where high degrees of purity and cleanliness are required. This is a three credit hour course.




    Nigel Harris


    NOTE: This text IS AVAILABLE at NMJC book store.


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    New Mexico Junior College’s institutional student learning outcomes represent the knowledge and abilities developed by students attending New Mexico Junior College. Upon completion students should achieve the following learning outcomes along with specific curriculum outcomes for respective areas of study:


    The objective of this course is to help students understand and successfully apply basic vacuum technologies in industry.


    By the end of this course, students should be able to:

    1. Explain Characteristics of Vacuum Science
    2. Identify Applications
    3. Understand Relevant Physical Concepts
    4. Provide Examples of Vacuum Measurement
    5. Identify Gases Present
    6. Identify Parts of Oil-sealed Mechanical Rotary Pumps
    7. Explain Application of Oil-free Mechanical Primary Pumps
    8. Identify Parts of Diffusion Pumps & Accessories
    9. Explain How Turbo Molecular Pumps Work
    10. Identify Cryopump Components
    11. Diferentiate Between Sorption, Getter Pumps and Oil-sealed Rotary Pumps
    12. Analyze Vacuum System Components & valves
    13. Specify Considerations in System Design
    14. Break Down Vacuum Chemical Processes
    15. Explain methods of Vacuum Leak Detection
    16. Understand the Safe Use of Vacuum Equipment


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    WEEK 1:

    Syllabus Quiz: 410 points
    Picture or Avatar: 200 points
    Week 1 Quiz: 80 points

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    What is a vacuum?
    Units of vacuum measurement (non-metric)
    Numbers written as powers of ten
    An early demonstration of vacuum
    Units of vacuum measurement (metric S.I. Units)
    Variation of pressure with altitude
    The vacuum spectrum
    Tabulated highlights in the history of vacuum
    An introduction to the production of vacuum
    Some demonstrations utilizing vacuum
    Vacuum measurement on the lunar surface

    Chapter 2. Applications

    Introduction to vacuum applications
    Selected vacuum applications in more detail
    Other examples of vacuum applications

    WEEK 2:

    Week 2 Quiz: 200 points
    Week 2 Discussion: 50 points
    Week 2 Research Report: 100 points

    Chapter 3. Relevant Physical Concepts

    States of matter
    Vapors and saturated vapor pressure
    Evaporation of water in vacuum
    Boyle's law
    Processes occurring at a boundary wall
    Gas mixtures – partial pressure
    Mean free path, molecular density and monolayer formation time
    Volume flow rate (pump speed)
    Throughput (Q)
    Pressure, speed and throughput relationship

    Chapter 4. Vacuum Measurement

    Historical overview
    Vacuum measurement scales
    Gauge terminology
    Active gauging
    Mechanical phenomena gauges
    Transport phenomena gauges
    Ionization phenomena gauges
    Reading analog gauge scales in powers of ten
    Review of measurement
    Mounting of gauge heads
    Uncertainty with the accuracy of measurement
    Calibration of vacuum gauges

    WEEK 3:

    Week 3 Quiz: 120 points
    Week 3 Discussion: 50 points
    Week 3 Research Report: 100 points

    Chapter 5. Identification of Gases Present

    How mass spectrometer work
    Some instrument characteristics
    Interpretation of mass spectra
    Qualitative interpretation of actual spectra
    Sources of residual gas
    Differential pumping
    Applications of mass spectrometry

    Chapter 6. Oil-sealed Mechanical Rotary Pumps

    Brief history of mechanical rotary pumps
    Rotary-vane pump
    Rotary-piston pump
    Gas ballast
    Rotary pump oils
    Pumping speed and ultimate pressure
    Back-migration of oil vapor in rotary pumps
    Rotary pump accessories

    WEEK 4:

    Mid Term: 600 points
    Week 4 Discussion: 50 points
    Week 4 Research Report: 100 points

    Chapter 7. Oil-free Mechanical Primary Pumps

    Dry pump introduction
    Diaphragm pump
    The scroll mechanism
    The screw mechanism
    The mechanical booster (Roots) mechanism
    The claw mechanism
    Point-of-use dry-pumping

    Chapter 8. Diffusion Pumps & Accessories

    Mode of operation
    Fractionation in oil diffusion pumps
    Critical backing pressure (CBP)
    Diffusion pump fluids
    Baffles and traps
    Diffusion pump system operation
    Venting the system with a dry, inert gas
    Integrated vapor pumping groups
    High throughput diffusion pumps
    Vapor boosted pumps
    Vapor booster pump comparisons
    Looking after diffusion pumps
    Troubleshooting a diffusion pumped system
    Speed testing of vacuum pumps
    Diffusion pump summary

    WEEK 5:

    Week 5 Quiz: 90 points
    Week 5 Discussion: 50 points
    Week 5 Research Report: 100 points

    Chapter 9. Turbo molecular Pumps

    How turbo-molecular pumps work
    Constructional and mechanical aspects
    Magnetic bearing turbo-molecular pumps
    Molecular drag and compound molecular pumps
    Corrosion-resistant variants for harsh conditions
    Split flow turbo-molecular pumps
    Operational aspects
    Matching a diaphragm pump to a turbo-molecular pump
    Troubleshooting turbo-molecular pumps
    Turbo-molecular pump summary

    Chapter 10. Cryopumps

    How cryopumps work
    Cryopumping and vapor pressure
    Cryopump system layout
    Operation of a cryopumping system
    Looking after cryopumps
    Cryopump safety
    Cryopump glossary
    Cryopump summary

    WEEK 6:

    Week 6 Quiz: 600 points
    Week 6 Discussion: 50 points
    Week 6 Research Report: 100 points

    Chapter 11. Sorption & Getter Pumps

    Sorption pumps
    Getter pumps
    Ion pumped systems
    Troubleshooting ion pumped systems
    Summary: point with respect to sputter-ion pumps

    Chapter 12. Vacuum System Components & valves

    Demountable joints
    Vacuum values
    Vacuum lead-throughs
    Fabrication of vacuum components

    WEEK 7:

    Week 7 Quiz: 100 points
    Week 7 Discussion: 50 points
    Week 7 Research Report: 100 points

    Chapter 13. Considerations in System Design

    Gas flow regions
    Conductance of pipelines
    Corrections for other gases and temperatures
    Conductance effect of other vacuum components
    Gas and vapor load
    Notes on UHV system design
    Pump-down times and pumping speed basic calculations
    Various nomongrams for estimating conductance, pump down times and pump size
    Matching pump combinations
    High vacuum pump comparison

    Chapter 14. Vacuum for Chemical Processes

    Vacuum measurement units in the chemical process industry
    Use of rotary pumps
    Once-through-oil options
    Liquid ring pumps
    Stream ejector pumps
    Summary and comparison of pumps

    WEEK 8:

    Week 8 Quiz: 10 points
    Week 8 Discussion: 80 points
    Week 8 Research Report: 100 points

    FINAL EXAM (LockDown Browser and Monitor required): TBD points

    Chapter 15. Vacuum Leak Detection

    The need to control leaks
    Leak rate
    The nature and avoidance of leaks
    Non mass spectrometer leak detection methods
    Mass spectrometer leak detectors
    General rules for leak detection
    Using a mass spectrometer leak detector
    Some specific examples of the use of mass spectrometer leak detectors
    Dedicated leak detectors for high volume industrial production
    Applications of helium spectrometer leak testing

    Chapter 16. Guide to the Save Use of Vacuum Equipment

    General precautions
    Hazards associated with particular equipment